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Articular Cartilage Repair in Kanpur

What is Articular Cartilage Repair?

Cartilage is a connective tissue, and it is found in many parts of your body. Although it is a rigid and springy material, it is somewhat easy to damage. In intense cases, a piece of cartilage can break off.

Cartilage has several roles in the human body:

It reduces friction, cushions between joints, and helps defend our weight when we run, bend, and stretch.
It holds bones together, for instance, the bones of the ribcage.
Some body parts are made almost entirely of cartilage, for instance, the exterior parts of our ears.
In children, the ends of the long bones are made of cartilage, which ultimately turns into bone.

Types of Articular Cartilage

There are three types of cartilage:

Elastic cartilage (yellow cartilage)

It is the most springy and supple type of cartilage. Elastic cartilage makes up the exterior of the ears and some of the nose.

Fibrocartilage

It is a stringent type of cartilage, able to withstand heavy weights. It is found between the discs and vertebrae of the backbone and between the bones of the hip and pelvis.

Hyaline cartilage

It is flexible, rigid, and elastic. It is found between the two ribs, around the windpipe, and between the joints (articular cartilage).

Symptoms of Articular Cartilage Damage

Patients with injury to the cartilage in a joint (articular cartilage damage) will experience:

  1. Inflammation – the area swells, becomes warmer than other body parts, and is tender, sore, and painful.
  2. Stiffness.
  3. Range limitation – as the damage progresses, the affected limb will not move freely and easily.
  4. Articular cartilage damage most commonly arises in the knee, but the elbow, wrist, ankle, shoulder, and hip joint can also be affected.

In severe cases, cartilage can break off, and the joint can become locked. This can lead to hemarthrosis (bleeding in the joint); the area may become blotchy and have a bruised appearance

Causes Of Articular Cartilage Repair

Direct blow – if a joint receives a heavy impact, perhaps during a bad fall or an automobile mishap, the cartilage may be damaged. Sportspeople are more likely to suffer from articular damage, especially those involved in high-impact sports like football, rugby, and wrestling.

Wear and tear

It is a joint that experiences a long period of stress and can become damaged. Obese individuals are more likely to harm their knees over 20 years than a person of average weight simply because the body is under a much higher degree of physical stress. Inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in your joints is known as osteoarthritis.

Lack of movement

These are the joints that need to move regularly to remain healthy. Long periods of inaction or stiffness increase the risk of damage to the cartilage.

Diagnosis of Articular Cartilage Damage

Telling the dissimilarity between cartilage damage in the knee and a sprain or ligament damage is not easy because the symptoms can be identical. However, modern non-invasive tests make the job much more easier than it used to be.

After carrying out a physical examination, the orthopedic doctor in Kanpur may order the following diagnostic tests:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

This device uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed body pictures. Although useful, an MRI cannot always glimpse cartilage damage.

Arthroscopy

It is a tube-like instrument (arthroscope) inserted into a joint to analyze and repair it. This method can help determine the extent of cartilage damage.

Surgical Treatments of Articular Damage Repair

Debridement

It smoothens the damaged cartilage and removes loose edges to prevent it from rubbing and irritating other parts of the body. The procedure uses small arthroscopic instruments, such as a mechanical shaver.

Marrow stimulation

Under the damaged cartilage, the orthopedic doctor in Kanpur drills tiny holes (micro-fractures), exposing the blood vessels inside the bone. This causes a blood clot to form inside the cartilage that triggers the exhibition process of new cartilage. Unfortunately, the new cartilage cells that grows is less supple than the original cartilage type. This means it wears away more rapidly, and the patient may need further surgery later.

Mosaicplasty

It is the most healthy, undamaged cartilage is taken from one area and moved to the damaged site. This procedure is not suitable when there is widespread damage, as in osteoarthritis. Mosaicplasty is only used for isolated regions of cartilage damage, generally limited to 10-20 millimeters in size; this technique is most commonly used in patients under the age of 50 who pick up damage from a casualty.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation – a small cartilage is removed and taken to a laboratory. Here, it is grown to produce much more cartilage cells. About 1 to 3 months later, the new cartilage cells are implanted into your knee, where they grow into healthy tissue.

Frequently Asked Questions

Dr. Raghvendra Jaiswal, The Best Orthopedic Doctor In Kanpur

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that coats the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It allows the bones to slide over each other with very little friction.

Articular cartilage restoration is a surgical technique that stimulates the growth of new cartilage to relieve pain and allow better function. The most common procedures for cartilage restoration are microfracture, drilling, abrasion arthroplasty, and matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Hyaline cartilage is the major component of the joint surface. When this cartilage is damaged, the joint surface may no longer be smooth. Moving bones along a rigid, damaged joint surface is complicated and causes pain. Damaged cartilage can also lead to arthritis in your joints.

In many cases, patients with joint injuries, such as meniscus tears or ligament tears, will also have cartilage damage. This damage may be hard to diagnose because hyaline cartilage does not include calcium and cannot, therefore, be seen on an X-ray. If other damages exist with cartilage damage, orthopaedic surgeons will address all problems during surgery.

Most contenders for articular cartilage restoration are young adults with a single injury or lesion. Senior patients or those with many lesions in one joint are less likely to benefit from the surgery. The knee is the most common area for cartilage repair. Ankle, shoulder, and elbow difficulties may also be treated.

The most common techniques for cartilage restoration are microfracture, drilling, abrasion arthroplasty, and matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Microfracture is tiny fractures in the bone beneath the damaged cartilage. This creates a healing response that stimulates the growth of new cartilage.

Drilling is when small holes are drilled into the bone beneath the damaged cartilage. This creates a healing response that stimulates the growth of new cartilage.

Abrasion arthroplasty is a process in which the damaged cartilage is removed, and the bone beneath is roughened. This creates a healing response that enables the growth of new cartilage.

Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation is a process in which a small piece of healthy cartilage is extracted from the patient’s body and sent to a laboratory. The laboratory grows new cartilage cells from the healthy cartilage. The new cells are then implanted into the damaged area of the joint.

Recovering time differs depending on the type of procedure performed. In general, recovery from an arthroscopic procedure is quicker and less painful than a conventional, open surgery.

The success rate of cartilage restoration surgery varies depending on the type of procedure performed, the size and area of the lesion, and the age and activity level of the patient. In general, younger patients with smaller lesions have a higher success rate.

Dr. Raghvendra Jaiswal has a rich experience in training house surgeons. He is trained in Computer Assisted Surgery(CAS). Dr. Raghvendra Jaiswa is one of Kanpur’s most experienced orthopaedic surgeons.

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